C H A P T E R   4   RECOGNISING AN OBJECT FROM DIFFERENT VIEWS   4.0       The Role of Canonical Views in  Object Recognition   Earlier in chapter 3, I reviewed the theories of RBC (Biederman, … Continue reading

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The Role Of Depth Cues On Visual Object Recognition And Naming (2)

    C H A P T E R  2   STEREOPSIS   2.0       Introduction   Human perception is very largely dominated by the visual modality. During the course of evolution the  snout shortened and the eyes became more frontally … Continue reading

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The Role of Visual Depth Cues on Visual Object Recognition and Naming :By Dr. Fawzy Osman, Ph.D., Senior Consultant Clinical Neuropsychologist

    The Role of Visual Depth Cues on Visual Object Recognition and Naming :By Dr. Fawzy Osman, Ph.D., Senior Consultant Clinical Neuropsychologist.  

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The Role of Visual Depth Cues on Visual Object Recognition and Naming :By Dr. Fawzy Osman, Ph.D., Senior Consultant Clinical Neuropsychologist

    The Role of Visual Depth Cues on Visual Object Recognition and Naming :By    Dr. Fawzy Osman, Ph.D., Senior Consultant Clinical Neuropsychologist       C H A P T E R   1   0.1       A general introduction … Continue reading

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Parental expectations of children’s development

English: Soap bubbles

English: Soap bubbles (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Parental expectations of children’s development
Journal of Clinical Child Psychiatry, 2007 15, pp. 259-70.

By Dr. F. A. Osman, BA.,BSc.,Msc., Ph.D.
Senior Consultant Clinical Neuropsychologist
CONTENTS ……………………………………….PAGE
Abstract ……………………………………………….01

Method ……………………………………..02

Subjects (Participants)………………………………….03

Procedure ………………………………….03

Result …………………………………04

Discussion ………………………………06

Conclusion ………………………………07

References …………………….08










Parental expectations of children’s development


The present study was carried out to explore the parent’s views and beliefs concerning the ages at which they think children typically acquire certain social and emotional skills, and the ages at which become able to perform various routine tasks. The design of the present study was replicating a research procedure designed by Hess et al., 1980 by making a comparison between two participants and the investigator himself. This is called the structured method. This technique therefore allows for the possibility that the parents will give unexpected views and that further questioning will lead to new discoveries about thinking.

The results showed that a culture differences has the most significant effect on the views and belief of parents on child development. The major difference in the responses Participant one from the Participant two and the investigator, is due to the different social background. Overall, the results of the present study in accordance with literature on whether experience or inherited factors can have a significant effect upon child development. The implications of these findings for the Vygotskyan theory of internalisation are discussed.
1.0. Introduction:

It is common belief that one of the main applications for a critical influence of child development is the context of social interaction provided by the child’s interaction with significant adults, especially parents. Different beliefs about children effect both the child-rearing practices and what children are expected to do.

The social dimension is very important in Vygotsky’s theory in studying developmental processes. Basically, Vygotsky believed that the process of developmental includes internalizing social interactions and it occurs within the child. The interaction can then begin to extend its topics to include joint action, and joint attention, directed to things other than the interaction itself. Vygotsky pointed out that society was essential to human cognitive development, beginning with interaction between the child and another person.

Studies of Hess et al.’s (1980) and Goodnow et al.’s (1984) have shown that how broader cultural expectations and values affected parental beliefs about the a proper development of their children. Hess et al., designed a ‘developmental expectations procedure ‘to examine in cross-cultural study mothers (i.e., Japanese vs. Americans) expectations of children’s development. Hess et al., found that mothers from these two societies placed significantly different emphases on what was to be encouraged as desirable in the growing child.

Moreover, Goodnow et al., (1984) replicated Hess et al.’s study and used ‘developmental expectations procedure’ to compare two groups of mothers (Australia, English as mother tongue language vs. Lebanon-born mothers seem to believe that skills can be learned when they are needed .

Generally speaking, many of Vygotsky’s observations fit the general findings in the present study. Vygotsky’s theory stresses the importance of including the social dimension in understanding child development. He argued that all thought arises first in actions between people and only then becomes internalized. On the other hand, behaviourists focus on observable behaviour rather than internal processes. For example, Skinner argued that history of reinforcements determines behaviour and by understanding this and using reinforcements one can shape behaviour.

Furthermore, Whiting & Edwards (1992) emphasize the effect of the community’s values on the way children are treated (e.g. phenomenon of electing power children). Their argument is guite similar to many ideas and observations of Vygotsky’s theory.

In sum, the present study is a replication of Hess et al., (1980) in which a comparison between two participants and the investigator himself about their views of child development. The aims here are to explore where parental beliefs come from, the experiences and influences that shape development goals.
2.0. Method:

The design of the present study was replicating a research procedure designed by Hess et al., 1980 by making a comparison between two participants and the investigator himself.

2.1. Subjects:

Two volunteers mothers as participants took part of the present study. The first participant is 27 year-old women and had been born in Bosnia. She came to Britain in her 20’s. She is happily married with an English accountant man (36 year-old) and her mother tongue was Bosnian. The second of 37 year-old, an Irish mother. These
mothers had children aged 4 and 6 years, a boy and a girl respectively.

2.2. Materials

To gather data in relation to expectations of parents about children’s development, the investigator conducted interviews. Each interview was about 65 minutes long and took place in the child’s home.

After familiarisation time and explaining the main purpose of the present study. The instruction (see Appendix 1) was read to each mother by the investigator.

After the participants have sorted the cards into piles. They allowed a five minutes break, the participants were involved in a discussion about their responses during the first part of the interview.

2.3. Design

The events and procedure used in the present study were identical to the research procedure designed by Hess et al., by making a comparison between two participants and the investigator about their views and belief of children’s development expectations (i.e., emotional maturity, politeness, compliance, independence, social skills and verbal assertiveness).

The ethical considerations were carefully considered. The investigator explained clearly the purpose of the present study . Parents happily agreed to participate in the present study.
3.0. Data and analysis

The data for this study were analysed using the comparison between averages score of each of six areas of child behaviour. The scores was based on the responses for the six areas of child’s development in different ages as follow: before 4 years: score 3; 4 or 5 years: score 2 and 6 years or older: score 1 (see Appendix 1). Thus, averages range between 1 and 3, with a higher score indicating a younger age at which children are expected ton reach the various developmental goals.
3.1. Results

The data of the present study are summarized in Table 1. The data in Table 2 from Hess’s comparison of Japan and the US and the present study sample are summarized in Figure 1, which shows the average scores in the six areas .



Parental expectations of children’s development
Area Participant 1 Participant 2 Current Emotional maturity 1.75 1.6 1.6 Politeness 1.5 2.5 2.25 Compliance 1.5 2 2 Independence 1.38 1.63 1.75 Social Skills 1.33 2.5 2.33 Verbal assertiveness 1.4 1.8 1.8

Table 1. Represents the average scores of two participants mother’s and one investigator of the present study for the developmental expectations for under 4 year to 5 year old and over 6 year old in each of six areas taken from Hess et al.’s. 1980.


As can be noted from Table 1, the average scores in the area of social skills were
markedly different from the data of the present study and those of Japanese sample. A detailed examination of the data (see Appendix 1 and 2) showed that Participant 1 (i.e., a mother of a 4 year-old boy) expected children to achieve emotional maturity at an earlier age than both Participant 2 (i.e., a mother of 6 year-old girl) and the
investigator ( a father of 9 and 7 year-old girl and boy respectively) of this study. The investigator’s of this study expectations concerning the areas of emotional maturity, verbal assertiveness and politeness were identical (average scores, 1.6 vs. 2.5 vs. 2.00 respectively) to those of Participant 1 (i.e., average scores, 1.75 vs. 1.5 vs. 1.5 respectively). With regards to the area of independence, the average scores between Participants 1 and 2 was markedly different (1.33 vs. 1.63 respectively) and the investigator (1.75 average scores). While investigator of the present study have similar expectations to these of Participant 1 for ‘emotional maturity’, ‘verbal assertiveness’ and ‘politeness’, the investigator expect later achievement of ‘independence’ and ‘compliance’.
Table 2. The developmental goals of four sample of adults.
Area/ Sample Japanese mothers* US mothers* UK ** mother mothers current*** emotional maturity 2.49 2.08 1.84 1.65 Politeness 2.24 2.04 2.18 2.08 Compliance 2.49 2.30 2.61 1.83 Independence 2.13 1.92 1.73 1.59 Social skills 1.87 2.18 2.08 2.06 Verbal assertiveness 1.73 2.18 2.17 1.64
Note: Averages range between 1 and 3, with a higher score indicating a younger age at which children are expected in reach the various developmental goals.
* indicates the averages in these columns have been taken from Table 1 of Hess et al., (1980), and Table 2, OU UK, (1990).
** *indicates the averages score in these column the data of the present study.
As you can see from Table 2, the averages scores for the participants in the present study was particularly roughly identical to those of the previous studies in the area of compliance. As the data stand, both the data of OU UK and the present study are quite similar, namely, in the areas of independence and social skills with the trend of lower averages score of the present study. However, the averages score of those two areas differed markedly from those of the USA and Japanese sample.


4.0. Discussion:

The findings of the present study have shown that parent’s culture has a strong effect of their expectations of the children’s social behaviour. A careful examinations of the data reported indicates the Participants views and beliefs about the ages of children’s development.

Taken together, the averages score from the different participants of the present study, the data collected by Hess et al., and the sample of OU UK are quite identical, namely, in the area of politeness. They all expected earlier achievement of politeness. This result is particularly important because it suggests that such attitudes are common to many cultures.

As the data of the present study stand, the effect of culture is quite obvious in the parent’s expectations of children’s social behaviour. The observed variation in the data between the investigator’s expectations and the Participants suggests that how a very different set assumptions held by mothers from different culture affect their expectations. Some societies encourage a great deal of adult child interaction with parents and elders , while others discourage it. For example, in some societies with large extended families, children are usually discouraged from imitating interaction with adults, ‘respect and obedience to orders are valued’ Whiting & Edwards (1992).

Moreover, the current sample data of Participant 1 versus Participant 2, the investigator in the present study demonstrated a distinctly different pattern of results, notably later expectations regarding emotional maturity, compliance, independence and verbal assertiveness. A careful look to the raw scores of the responses of Participant 1 (The Bosnian-born mother) reported that she used to have everything done for her, there was not any type of demand to share hard activities in her big family and her parent loved to enjoy her childhood time. This is one example of her parent in different culture express their expectations about the skills of developmental children. They are not expected to take responsibilities until they are much older. Miller (1987), suggests that such attitudes are common to many cultures and continue to exist today. Whiting & Edwards noted that adults caretakers, usually mothers, all over the world have similar goals-’caring for, socialising and transmitting culture to their children’ (Whiting & Edwards, 1988, p.87, quoted from BK1, OU).

As I approach the conclusion of the present study, it is appropriate to explain and try to answer the following question: How a parent’s behaviour can be affected by their image of their children?. Attribution theorists propose that causal attributions play a central role in predicting behaviour as individuals use them to understand, control and master their environment. When parents perceive a behaviour to be more intentional, they are more upset by it and more likely to endorse power-assertive discipline techniques. Hence, children’s perception of their own behaviour will be co-determined
by such parental attributions. To some extent, children’s representations of themselves will be moulded by parent’s expectations and ideals and these are transmitted through
mimicry and actions that reveal to the child how the parents have interpreted his intentions. Through this process the child learns how to intend’ (Dunn, 1982).

The result of the present study is similar to the studies findings of Hess et al.’s (1980) and Goodnow et al.’s (1984). The parents from different culture placed significantly different emphases on what was to be encouraged as desirable in the growing child.
To some up, to understand more fully the development of beliefs about children it would seem to be necessary to take account of cultural processes that affect both child and parents behaviour. Therefore, a simple cause-and-effect model cannot fully describe the complex transactional links between parents and children behaviour: each person plays a part in determining how the other behaves within the cultural patterns that extend and have consequences beyond the specific interactions between parents and their children.
5.0 Conclusion:

The results of the present study are consistent with many research studies of child rearing. Any account of development is necessarily culturally based, since the processes of raising children are essentially one of enculturation. However, it is important to remember that such understandings of human behaviour are not universal. What is true for middle-class white Europeans is not necessarily true in other parts of the worlds.


1. Bruner, J. S. (1975).From communication to language: a psychological perspective. Cognition, 3, pp.255-87.

2. Cleason, J. (1973). Code-switching in children’s language, in Moore, T. E.(ed) Cognitive Developmental and Acquisition of language, New York, Academic Press.

3.Dunn, J, (1982). Comment: ‘Problems and promises in the study of affect and intention. In Tronick, E. (ed.). Social interchange in infancy. Baltimore Md.: University Park Press.

4. Goodnow, J. J., Cashmore, J., Cotton, S.& Knight , R. (1984). Mothers’ developmental timetables in two cultural groups. International Journal of Psychology, 19, pp. 193-205.

5. Meadows, S., (1996). Parenting Behaviour and Children’s Cognitive Development, Psychology Press, Hove, UK.

6. Miller, A. (1987). For your good: the roots of violence in child-rearing, London, Virago.

7. Piaget, J. (1973). The psychology of intelligence, Totowa (N.J), Littlefield, Adams & Co (First published in English by Rouledge and Keagan Paul, 1930).

8. Hess, R. D., Kashiwagi, K., A zuma, H., Price, G. G., and Dickson, W. P. (1980): Maternal expectations for mastery of developmental tasks in Japan and USA. International Journal of Psychology, 15, pp. 259-70.

9. James, A., & Prout, A. (eds) (1990). Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: contemporary issues in the sociological study of childhood, London, Falmer Press.

10. Kaye, K. B& Marcus, J. (1981). Infant imitation: the senseorimotor agenda. Developmental Psychology, 17, pp.258-65.

11. Snow, C. E.(1972). ‘Mothers ‘ speech to children learning language, Child Development, 43. pp. 549-65.

12. Whiting, B. & Edwards, C. P.,(1992). Children of different worlds: the formation of social behaviour. Cambridge )Mass.), Harvard University Press.





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The development of language, memory and cognition and Connectionist models :

        The development of language, memory and cognition and Connectionist models : By Dr. Fawzy A. Osman Salama, BA., Bsc., Msc, Ph.D., Senior Consultant Clinical Neuropsychologist       CONTENTS ……………………………………….PAGE       Introduction…………………………………………………01 Conclusion ….. … Continue reading

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Attachment Theory and bring up children

Attachment theory and bring up children by Dr. Fawzy A. Osman Salama, Ph.D. Senior Clinical Counsultant Neuropsycholgist CONTENTS ……………………………………….PAGE Abstract ……………………………………………….01 Introduction………………………………………………… Discussion …………………………….. Conclusion ………………………………06 References …………………….06 Does attachment theory provide a sound for advice on how to bring … Continue reading

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Manage your weight..go to FAT-Burning phase..FEEL GOOD!!!

The induction diet and 14-DAY (maximum FAT Burning, Dr. Atkins) foods will help serve you as part of your long-term diet programme. If at any time you have broken your diet program, you will simply return to the 14 maximum Fat-burning phase for a quick “jump start” to your long-term health program.

1- 20 GRAMS of Carbohydrate (carbs) a day is your limit.  With this intake of carbs, you can go into ketosis (i.e, fat burning) and begin burnng your fat!. 
2-Eat until you are full, not stuffed. When you are not hungury, eat nothing or a small protein snack ( eggs, chicken, etc.). 

3-Stay only with approved foods (below). This is essential to your SUCCESS!!!!!. Don’t cheat with just little sugar or sweets or chocolate, or any of other “addictive” foods or drink (coffee, tea, cola, pepsi etc.). 

4-Stick with pure proteins, pure fats (butter, olive oil, mayonnaise etc.) and combinations of portein and fat. NO PROTEIN AND CRABS OR FAT AND CRABS!!!!!!!. 

5-Use your carbohyrate gram counter to make certain what the crab.
*-super low- no crabs foods: Fish/ tuna/sardines (ALL FISH). 

_*Lamb meat, Beef (ALL MEAT)
-*Meat Fowl: turky, goose, chiken (ALL FOWL). 
*-Eggs: fried, scrambled, soft-boild, omelettes (All eggs).
_* shelfish: oyster, mussles, prawns, lobster (ALL SHELFISH). 


SALAD DRESSING: USE OLIVE OIL PLUS VINEGAR OR LEMON. Eat green leafs (rocket, lettuce, spinach) NO CARROT OR ANY POTATOES!!! salad with every dinner.

Please just make sure no sugar.

mineral water
Decaf Tea
Decaf Coffee

Please, buy artificial sweeteners : Stevia is the safest (sold in health food stores), Saccharin, aspartame and acesulame K are allowed./ but sorbitol, mannitol and other hexitols are not allowed.

Please be aware of commons MISTAKES to avoid with the 14-DAY Rapid-FAT LOSS FOODS: 

1- Remember that the 14-DAY diet includes NO Fruit, no bread, no grains, no any pasta, no rice, no starchy veggies or any dairy products (other than cheese, cream or butter).

2- No diet prouducts unless they state “contains NO Carbs). 

3- Don’t get tricked by “sugarless” lables.

4-Avoid other products that are high in crabs like chewing gum, cough syrups, cough drops, and herbal candies that often contain sugar. 

IF you mistaken any forbiden stuff, then you have to restart again. All my best wishes and good luck!.

Dr. FAWZY OSMAN SALAMA, Msc.,Dip.Clin.Psych,Ph.D. C.Psychol
Senior Consultant Clinical Neuropsychologist
              GREAT BRITAIN
+44 (0)7550144423/+44 (0) 1792 465713
E-mail: neurosman@hotmail.co.uk
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Smile is the key to Positiveness

Dr. F. A. Osman, BSC, MSC, Ph.D.

Senior C. Neuropsychologist


استيقظ صباحا وانت سعيد :

يطلع النهار على البعض فيقول ( صباح الخير يا دنيا )

بينما يقول البعض الاخر ( ما هذا …. لماذا حل علينا النهار مرة أخرى بهذه السرعة !!!)

احذر من الافكار السلبية التي يمكن أن تخطر على بالك صباحا حيث انها من الممكن أن تبرمج يومك كله بالأحاسيس السلبية .

وركز انتباهك على الأشياء الايجابية ، وابدأ يومك بنظرة سليمة تجاه الأشياء . 

احتفظ بابتسامة جذابة على وجهك :

حتى اذا لم تكن تشعر انك تريد أن تبتسم فتظاهر بالابتسامة حيث ان العقل الباطن لا يستطيع أن يفرق

بين الشيء الحقيقي والشيء الغير حقيقي ، وعلى ذلك فمن الأفضل أن تقرر أن تبتسم باستمرار . 

كن البادئ بالتحية والسلام :

هناك حديث شريف يقول ( وخيرهما الذي يبدأ بالسلام ) …

فلا تنتظر الغير وابدأ أنت 

كن منصتا جيدا :

اعلم ان هذا ليس بالأمر السهل دائما ، وربما يحتاج لبعض الوقت حتى تتعود على ذلك،

فأبدأ من الان لا تقاطع أحدا اثناء حديثه وعليك بإظهار الاهتمام وكن منصتا جيدا …. 

خاطب الناس بأسمائهم :

أعتقد أن اسمائنا هي أجمل شيء تسمعه اذاننا فخاطب الناس بأسمائهم . 

تعامل مع كل انسان على أنه أهم شخص في الوجود :

ليس فقط انك ستشعر بالسعادة نتيجة لذلك ، ولكن سيكون لديك عدد أكبر من الأصدقاء

يبادلونك نفس الشعور  

ابدأ بالمجاملة :

قم كل يوم بمجاملة ثلاثة أشخاص على الأقل .

دون تواريخ ميلاد المحيطين بك :

بتدوينك لتواريخ ميلاد المحيطين بك يمكنك عمل مفاجأة تدخل السرور على قلوبهم

بأن تتصل بهم أو أن تبعث لهم ببطاقات التهنئة وتتمنى لهم الصحة والسعادة . 

قم بإعداد المفاجأة لشريك حياتك :

يمكنك تقديم هدية بسيطة أو بعض من الزهور من وقت لآخر ، وربما يمكنك

أن تقوم بعمل شيء بعينه مما يحوز اعجاب الطرف الاخر ، وستجد أن هناك

فرقا كبيرا في العلاقة الايجابية بينكما . 

ضم من تحبه الى صدرك :

قالت فيرجينا ساتير الاختصاصية العالمية في حل مشاكل الأسرة

( نحن نحتاج الى 4ضمات مملوءة بالحب للبقاء ، و 8لصيانة كيان الأسرة ، و 12ضمة للنمو ) …

فابدأ من اليوم باتباع ذلك يوميا وستندهش من قوة تأثير النتائج . 

كن السبب في أن يبتسم أحد كل يوم :

ابعث رسالة شكر لطبيبك أو طبيب أسنانك أو حتى المختص بإصلاح سيارتك . 

كن دائم العطاء :

وقد حدث أن احد سائقي اتوبيسات الركاب في دينفر بأمريكا نظر في وجوه الركاب ،

ثم أوقف الأتوبيس ونزل منه ، ثم عاد بعد عدة دقائق ومعه علبة من الحلوى وأعطى

كل راكب قطعة منها . ولما أجرت معه احدى الجرائد مقابلة صحفية بخصوص هذا

النوع من الكرم والذي كان يبدو غير عادي . قال ( أنا لم أقم بعمل شيء كي أجذب

انتباه الصحف ، ولكني رأيت الكآبة على وجوه الركاب في ذلك اليوم ، فقررت أن أقوم

بعمل شيء يسعدهم ، فأنا أشعر بالسعادة عند العطاء ، وما قمت به ليس الا شيئا بسيطا في هذا الجانب ) .

فكن دائم العطاء . 

سامح نفسك وسامح الاخرين :

ان الذات السلبية في الانسان هي التي تغضب وتأخذ بالثأر وتعاقب بينما الطبيعة الحقيقية

للإنسان هي النقاء وسماحة النفس والصفاء والتسامح مع الاخرين . 

استعمل دائما كلمة ( من فضلك ) وكلمة ( شكرا ) :

هذه الكلمات البسيطة تؤدي الى نتائج مدهشة فقم باتباع ذلك وسترى بنفسك ولابد أن تعرف

أن نظرتك تجاه الأشياء هي من اختيارك أنت فقم بهذا الاختيار حتى تكون عندك نظرة سليمة

وصحيحة تجاه كل شيء . 

من اليوم قم بمعاملة الاخرين بالطريقة التي تحب أن يعاملوك به .

من اليوم ابتسم للآخرين كما تحب أن يبتسموا لك .

من اليوم امدح الاخرين كما تحب أن يقوموا هم بمدحك .

من اليوم انصت للآخرين كما تحب أن ينصتوا لك .

من اليوم ساعد الاخرين كما تحب أن يساعدوك .

بهذه الطريقة ستصل لأعلى مستوى من النجاح ، وستكون في طريقك للسعادة بلا حدود. 


عش كل لحظة كأنها اخر لحظة في حياتك .!!!

عش بالإيمان ، عش بالأمل ، عش بالحب ، عش بالكفاح ، وقدر قيمة الحياة . 

بالتوفيق للجميع ،،،،

(Translated from Dr ABRAHM AL FAQY الدكتور ابراهيم الفقي ( رحمه الله)

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